WHO to Immunize 300,000 in Borno Against Cholera

The World Health Organisation (WHO) says it will immunize 300,000 people against cholera in Borno.

This is contained in the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA), Humanitarian Situation Report for the Month of September.

It said that the organisation in collaboration with other health development partners would also conduct another round of Oral Cholera Vaccination (ORV) exercise in the state.

Reports indicate that the immunization exercise would be conducted at Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) camps and host communities of Damasak, Banki, Bama, Gamburu, Ngala and Pulka.

“For the first time in Nigeria; an Oral Cholera Vaccines (OCV) was carried out between Sept. 18 and 22 to protect communities and prevent further spread of the disease. The first round campaign reached close to 850,000 people through combination of fixed and mobile strategies.

“The request for the additional vaccines is to be submitted to the International Coordination Group on Vaccines Provision pending the clearance and approval of the state and health authorities”.

The UN-OCHA report shows that 4,360 suspected or confirmed cholera cases and 60 related deaths were recorded in Borno in September.

It notes that humanitarian organisations had scale up activities to contain the outbreak in parts of Maiduguri, Jere, Dikwa, Monguno and Mafa local government areas.

To control the outbreak health, sanitation and hygiene actors established Cholera Treatment Centers (CTC) and Oral Re-hydration Points (ORP) in the affected communities.

Another key intervention to be conducted was the third round Seasonal Malaria Chemo-Prevention campaign.

The exercise was targets children under the age of five in Maiduguri, Konduga, Monguno, Jere and Mafa local government councils.

OCHA also disclosed that the Mobile Hard-To-Reach teams were increased to 35 as against 24, to enhance health care delivery in Yobe.

It noted that the measure was to enhance access to healthcare services in remote and security compromised communities at Gujba, Gulani, Geidam, Yunusari, Tarmuwa, Karasuwa, Bade and Fika local government areas of Yobe State.

The report further showed that 13,000 children had so far benefited from consultations and treatments of minor ailments, 41,752 children de-wormed and 32,930 received Vitamin A supplement, since the deployment of the teams to the state.

While 59,080 children were screened of malnutrition; 41,542 reached with health promotion messages, 626 women received ante-natal care, 82 pre-natal care and 31 family planning consultations.

The UN agency revealed that proactive measures had been evolved to strengthen the Mental Health and Psycho-Social Support (MHPSS) response to provide appropriate referral pathways for individuals, groups or families in need of mental health support in the war ravaged region.

It added that WHO and other health partners are working with Nigerian mental health authorities to enhance clinical management of mental disorder through deployment of specialized mental health workers such as psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, pharmacological, non-pharmacological and psychologists.

According to OCHA, the Boko Haram insurgency caused humanitarian crisis with over 6.9 million people in need of quality healthcare services.

It explained that 5.9 million persons were targeted for support services while 5 million people reached with emergency health services this year in the Northeast.

NAN

WHO Sacks Mugabe as Ambassador

Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe has been removed as a goodwill ambassador, the World Health Organisation (WHO) said on Sunday following outrage among Western donors and rights groups at the appointment.

WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus named Mugabe to the largely ceremonial post at a meeting on chronic diseases attended by both men in Uruguay on Wednesday.

At the time, Tedros praised Zimbabwe as “a country that places universal health coverage and health promotion at the centre of its policies to provide healthcare to all”.

But Tedros said in a statement that he had listened to those expressing concerns and heard the “different issues” raised.

“Over the last few days, I have reflected on my appointment of H.E. President Robert Mugabe as WHO Goodwill Ambassador for NCDs (non-communicable diseases) in Africa.

”As a result I have decided to rescind the appointment,” Tedros said.

The decision had been taken after consultation with the Harare government and was “in the best interests of the World Health Organisation”, he said.

Jeremy Farrar, a global health specialist and director of the Wellcome Trust charity and the NCD alliance, representing health groups combating chronic diseases, welcomed the reversal.

“Dr Tedros deserves all our support to ensure he and WHO build a global health movement that is inclusive and works to improve health for everyone,” Farrar said in a statement.

Zimbabwean Member of Parliament Psychology Maziwisa, of Mugabe’s ruling ZANU-PF party, tweeted.

The tweet said:“A very, very disappointing decision by WHO but not an entirely unexpected one, given the well-known political position of its donors on ZW.”

Several former and current WHO staff had said privately they were appalled at the “poor judgement” and “miscalculation” by Tedros, elected the first African head of WHO in May.

Mugabe was head of the African Union when the bloc endorsed Tedros – a former health and foreign minister of Ethiopia – over other African candidates for the top post, without any real regional contest, they said.

Mugabe, 93, is blamed in the West for destroying Zimbabwe’s economy and numerous human rights abuses during his 37 years leading the country as either president or prime minister.

Britain had said Mugabe’s appointment as a goodwill ambassador was “surprising and disappointing” and that it risked overshadowing the WHO’s global work.

The United States, which has imposed sanctions on Mugabe for alleged human rights violations, also voiced disappointment.

“He (Tedros) has to remember where his funding comes from,” said one health official who declined to be identified.

The Trump administration, which is already questioning financial support for some United Nations agencies, is WHO’s largest single donor.

WHO is struggling to recover a reputation tarnished by its slowness in tackling the Ebola epidemic that killed more than 11,000 people in West Africa from 2014-2015 under Tedros’ predecessor Margaret Chan.

The agency is grappling with a massive cholera outbreak in Yemen that has infected some 800,000 people in the past year and a plague outbreak in Madagascar that has killed nearly 100 in two months.

Mugabe Now WHO Disease “Ambassador”

President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe has been appointed as a “goodwill ambassador” of the World Health Organisation (WHO), to help tackle non-communicable diseases.

New WHO head Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus praised Zimbabwe for its commitment to public health.

However, critics say Zimbabwe’s healthcare system has collapsed, with the president and many of his senior ministers going abroad for treatment.

They say that staff are often unpaid and medicines are in short supply.

Dr Tedros, who is Ethiopian, is the first African to lead the WHO and replaced Margaret Chan, who stepped down from her 10-year post in June.

He was elected with a mandate to tackle perceived politicisation in the organisation.

The WHO head praised Zimbabwe as “a country that places universal health coverage and health promotion at the centre of its policies to provide healthcare to all”.

But U.S.-based campaign group Human Rights Watch said it was an embarrassment to give the ambassador role to Mr Mugabe given his record on human rights.

“If you look at Zimbabwe, Mugabe’s corruption, his utter mismanagement of the economy has devastated health services there,” said executive director Kenneth Roth.

“Indeed, you know, Mugabe himself travels abroad for his health care. He’s been to Singapore three times this year already. His senior officials go to South Africa for their health care.

“When you go to Zimbabwean hospitals, they lack the most basic necessities.”

“The idea of hailing Mr Mugabe “as any kind of example of positive contribution to health care is absolutely absurd,” he added.

BBC

7,000 Children Die Everyday –WHO

The World Health Organisation has revealed that about 7,000 children die every day. In further explanation, the organization said every day in 2016 at least 15 000 children died before their fifth birthday. In a new report by the United Nations, 46% of them – or 7 000 babies – died in the first 28 days of life. Although the number of children dying before the age of five is at a new low– 5.6 million in 2016, compared with nearly 9.9 million in 2000 – the proportion of under-five deaths in the newborn period has increased from 41% to 46% during the same period.

 

“The lives of 50 million children under-five have been saved since 2000, a testament to the serious commitment by governments and development partners to tackle preventable child deaths,” said UNICEF Chief of Health, Stefan Swartling Peterson. “But unless we do more to stop babies from dying the day they are born, or days after their birth, this progress will remain incomplete. We have the knowledge and technologies that are required – we just need to take them where they are most needed.”

 

At current trends, 60 million children will die before their fifth birthday between 2017 and 2030, half of them newborns, according to the report released by UNICEF, the World Health Organization, the World Bank and the Population Division of UNDESA which make up the Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (IGME). Most newborn deaths occurred in two regions: Southern Asia (39%) and sub-Saharan Africa (38%). Five countries accounted for half of all new-born deaths: India (24%), Pakistan (10%), Nigeria (9%), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (4%) and Ethiopia (3%).

 

“To achieve universal health coverage and ensure more newborns survive and thrive, we must serve marginalized families,” says Dr Flavia Bustreo, Assistant Director-General for Family, Women’s and Children’s Health at WHO. “To prevent illness, families require financial power, their voices to be heard and access to quality care. Improving the quality of services and timely care during and after childbirth must be prioritized.”

 

The report notes that many lives can be saved if global inequities are reduced. If all countries achieved the average mortality of high-income countries, 87% of under-five deaths could have been averted and almost 5 million lives could have been saved in 2016.

 

“It is unconscionable that in 2017, pregnancy and childbirth are still life-threatening conditions for women, and that 7 000 newborns die daily,” said Tim Evans, Senior Director of Health Nutrition and Population at the World Bank Group. “The best measure of success for Universal Health Coverage is that every mother should not only be able to access healthcare easily but that it should be quality, affordable care that will ensure a healthy and productive life for her children and family. We are committed to scaling up our financing to support country demand in this area, including through innovative mechanisms like the Global Financing Facility (GFF). ”

 

Pneumonia and diarrhoea top the list of infectious diseases which claim the lives of millions of children under-five globally, accounting for 16% and 8% of deaths, respectively. Preterm birth complications and complications during labour or childbirth were the causes of 30% of newborn deaths in 2016. In addition to the 5.6 million under-5 deaths, 2.6 million babies are stillborn each year, the majority of which could be prevented.

 

Ending preventable child deaths can be achieved by improving access to skilled health-professionals during pregnancy and at the time of birth; lifesaving interventions, such as immunization, breastfeeding and inexpensive medicines; and increasing access to water and sanitation, that are currently beyond the reach of the world’s poorest communities.For the first time, mortality data for older children age 5 to 14 was included in the report, capturing other causes of death such as accidents and injuries. Approximately 1 million children aged 5 to 14 died in 2016.

 

“This new report highlights the remarkable progress since 2000 in reducing mortality among children under age 5,” said UN Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs Mr. LIU Zhenmin. “Despite this progress, large disparities in child survival still exist across regions and countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet many deaths at these ages are easily preventable through simple, cost-effective interventions administered before, during and immediately after birth. Reducing inequities and reaching the most vulnerable newborns, children and mothers are essential for achieving the SDG target on ending preventable childhood deaths and for ensuring that no one will be left behind.”

 

In sub-Saharan Africa, estimates show that 1 child in 36 dies in the first month, while in the world’s high-income countries, the ratio is 1 in 333. Unless the rate of progress improves, more than 60 countries will miss the UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) to end preventable deaths of newborns by 2030 and a half would not meet the target of 12 neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births by 2050. These countries account for about 80% of neonatal deaths in 2016.

 

 

 

Kebbi Seeks WHO Support On Polio

Gov. Atiku Bagudu of Kebbi has called on the World Health Organisation (WHO) to help curtail spread of Polio by influx of children infected with the virus from neighboring Benin and Niger republics.

Bagudu, who received a delegation of WHO led by County Representative, Dr Wondi Alemu, in Birnin Kebbi on Wednesday, said the influx of infected children had reduced Polio immunisation performance index.

“Our state has porous border with neighboring Benin and Niger republics.

“Most of the children we have on the streets are beggars or out of school who are not from the state not even from this country, but from the two countries.

“We are known for Islamic scholarship as a result of that citizens from the two countries send their children to acquire Islamic education in our state,” he said.

He appealed to the WHO to consider increasing funding to tackle health challenges commensurate with the population of Sokoto, Zamfara and Kebbi states with about 11 million people.

He described the WHO donation to the three states as inadequate when compared to the amount received by Asian and Latin American developing countries.

“While we are not implying that we want to be dependent on WHO’s assistance but the assistance is needed by a country in need of it at the time of need,’’ Bagudu said.

According to him, Kebbi has the largest number of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in the whole of North West Nigeria, noting that about 60 per cent of fishermen in Borno are from Kebbi.

“A few months ago we received about 7,000 IDPs from Niger Republic,” he added.

He said the influx of IDPs was a challenge to the state health sector.

The governor commended development partners for the engagement in the health sector, while appreciating the efforts of WHO in the eradication of polio and improvement of the health sector.

However, he thanked traditional and religious leaders for their support and participation in polio immunisation campaigns and actualisation in the state.

Alemu had earlier said the team was in the state to review what the government was doing and its efforts in health care service delivery as well as challenges faced on polio immunisation in the state.

He said the organisation was looking forward to building capacity on surveillance on polio and other diseases.

“We are determined to improve regular supervision on capacity surveillance, strengthen gains and evaluation of health sector,” he said.

He advised the state government to strengthen the health sector, especially improvement of laboratory system, adding that some diseases could be diagnosed via laboratory channels before they escalate.

He commended the state government for the restoration and increase of counterpart funding to support WHO’s activities.

Girls Account For Nearly 80% Of New HIV Infections In Africa – WHO

The World Health Organisation (WHO) says girls account for nearly 80 per cent of new HIV infections in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Director, Family and Reproductive Health Cluster, WHO Regional Office for Africa, Dr. Felicitas Zawaira, said this in a statement issued, in Abuja, on Monday.

Zawaira said most recent data from the organisation showed that only 13 per cent of these adolescent girls, and nine per cent of adolescent boys had been tested for HIV in the past 12 months in the region.

She said adolescents in the African region represented approximately 23 per cent of the population with several specific needs when it comes to their health.

Zuwaira said in spite of their large numbers, very few African governments had put in place specific plans and policies that targeted adolescents.

According to her, numerous social, cultural and economic barriers further prevent them from accessing the health services they need.

“These realities are compounded by the fact that adolescents and young people represent a growing share of people living with HIV.

“In 2015, 250,000 adolescents between the ages of 15 and 19 were newly infected with HIV.

“Adolescents and young people are our future; we call them the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) generation.

“This is because they will be adults by the time we get to 2030. Unless we ensure that they grow up healthy and remain healthy, we are going to face incredible challenges down the road,’’ Zawaira said.

The director said adolescents had the potential to become productive members of the society, adding that this would not be achieved, if they were plagued by illness and lacked the opportunity to grow.

She said that as part of WHO’s new Adolescent Health Flagship programme, the organisation would support countries to develop strategies and implement evidence-based interventions.

Zuwaira said the interventions would include: improving immunization coverage, tackling substance abuse, treating mental health, offering reproductive and sexual health services, and preventing accidents and injuries.

She said that while the health sector had a special role to play in leading this effort, improving adolescent health would require the involvement of other sectors such as education and finance.

According to her, the involvement of adolescents themselves is also very important to the success of the intervention.

 

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Ebola Outbreak: WHO Adopts Measures To Support DR Congo

The World Health Organisation (WHO) said it had taken measures to effectively respond to the recent outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Regional Director of WHO for Africa, Dr Matshidiso Moeti, said in a statement on Sunday in Abuja said that the organisation would work with the UN and other partners to halt the spread of the disease.

Moeti said WHO had assured the DRC Government of its preparedness to respond to the outbreak of the scourge after the government’s alarm on it.

She said that as at Sunday, 11 suspected cases, including three deaths, had been reported, adding that the disease had been discovered in Likati health zone, Bas Uele Province in the northern part of the country.

She stated that the organisation had mobilised technical experts for deployment to Congo, adding that it would also provide leadership expertise to attain coordinated and effective response.

“On May 10, 2017, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Ministry of Health and supported by WHO under the new WHO Emergency Programme, and partners, was deployed to Likati health zone to conduct an in-depth field investigation.

“The health zone is situated in the remote, isolated and hard-to-reach northern part of the country with limited transport and communication networks.

“These factors have impeded transmission of information about the suspected outbreak. Currently, it takes about two to three days to reach the epicentre from Kinshasa.

“The Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) has been activated to provide additional support if required.

“Reinforcement of epidemiological surveillance, contact tracing, case management, and community engagement are under way,” Moeti said.

She added that the full extent of the current outbreak of Ebola in DRC was yet clear, stating that extensive investigation and risk assessment were still being conducted.

She said that the findings from the investigation would be communicated accordingly.

According to Moeti, WHO does not recommend any restriction on travel and trade to DRC based on available information.

She urged the public in DRC to work with health authorities and take necessary preventive measures to protect their health.

In the statement, she quoted DR Congo Minister of Health, Dr Oly Kalenga, as expressing appreciation to WHO for the swift support in carrying out investigations that led to the confirmation of the outbreak.

Kalenga said a strong multi-sectoral response, better coordination, public awareness, community engagement and adequate resources would be critical in the country’s effort to stop the Ebola spread.

According to him, the first case occurred on April 22 in a 45-year-old male. He was transported by taxi to the hospital and was dead on arrival. The driver also fell ill and later died.

“A third person who cared for the first case also became ill and has subsequently died. At present, 25 contacts of the second patient who died are being followed.

“Of the cases and deaths, one has been tested PCR-positive for Ebola. This is the eighth outbreak of Ebola virus disease in DRC since its discovery in 1976.

“On November 20, 2014, in line with WHO recommendations, the DRC Ministry of Health and WHO declared the end of the Ebola virus disease outbreak that started on August 24, 2014.

“This outbreak resulted in a total of 38 laboratory-confirmed cases and 28 probable cases, including 49 deaths in the Boende, Equateur province,” Kalenga said.

Ebola: WHO Moves to Support DR Congo

The World Health Organisation (WHO) said it had taken measures to effectively respond to the recent outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Regional Director of WHO for Africa, Dr Matshidiso Moeti, said in a statement on Sunday in Abuja said that the organisation would work with the UN and other partners to halt the spread of the disease.

Moeti said WHO had assured the DRC Government of its preparedness to respond to the outbreak of the scourge after the government’s alarm on it.

She said that as at Sunday, 11 suspected cases, including three deaths, had been reported, adding that the disease had been discovered in Likati health zone, Bas Uele Province in northern part of the country.

She stated that the organization had mobilised technical experts for deployment to Congo, adding that it would also provide leadership expertise to attain coordinated and effective response.

“On May 10, 2017, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Ministry of Health and supported by WHO under the new WHO Emergency Programme, and partners, was deployed to Likati health zone to conduct in-depth field investigation.

“The health zone is situated in the remote, isolated and hard-to-reach northern part of the country with limited transport and communication networks.

“These factors have impeded transmission of information about the suspected outbreak. Currently, it takes about two to three days to reach the epicenter from Kinshasa.

“The Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) has been activated to provide additional support if required.

“Reinforcement of epidemiological surveillance, contact tracing, case management, and community engagement are under way,” Moeti said.

She added that the full extent of the current outbreak of Ebola in DRC was yet clear, stating that extensive investigation and risk assessment were still being conducted.

She said that the findings from the investigation would be communicated accordingly.

According to Moeti, WHO does not recommend any restriction on travel and trade to DRC based on available information.

She urged the public in DRC to work with health authorities and take necessary preventive measures to protect their health.

In the statement, she quoted DR Congo Minister of Health, Dr Oly Kalenga, as expressing appreciation to WHO for the swift support in carrying out investigations that led to the confirmation of the outbreak.

Kalenga said a strong multi-sectoral response, better coordination, public awareness, community engagement and adequate resources would be critical in the country’s effort to stop the Ebola spread.

According to him, the first case occurred on April 22 in a 45-year-old male. He was transported by taxi to hospital and was dead on arrival. The driver also fell ill and later died.

“A third person who cared for the first case also became ill and has subsequently died. At present, 25 contacts of the second patient who died are being followed.

“Of the cases and deaths, one has been tested PCR-positive for Ebola. This is the eighth outbreak of Ebola virus disease in DRC since its discovery in 1976.

“On November 20, 2014, in line with WHO recommendations, the DRC Ministry of Health and WHO declared the end of the Ebola virus disease outbreak that started on August 24, 2014.

“This outbreak resulted in a total of 38 laboratory-confirmed cases and 28 probable cases, including 49 deaths in the Boende, Equateur province,” Kalenga said.

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First Large-Scale Malaria Vaccine Trials For Africa

The World Health Organization says three African countries have been chosen to test the world’s first malaria vaccine.

Ghana, Kenya and Malawi will begin piloting the injectable vaccine next year with young children.

WHO said Monday that the vaccine has the potential to save tens of thousands of lives if used with existing measures. The challenge is whether impoverished countries can deliver the required four doses of the vaccine for each child.

Mosquito-borne malaria infects more than 200 million people worldwide every year and kills about half a million, most of them children in Africa. Bed netting and insecticides are the chief protection.

WHO says a global effort to counter malaria has led to a 62 percent cut in deaths between 2000 and 2015.

Source: AP

 

WHO Says 325m People Have Chronic Hepatitis B/C virus

A recent report by the World Health Organization (WHO) has revealed that a vast majority of the estimated 325 million people living with chronic hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus infection lack access to life-saving testing and treatment.

The report said which showed that Hepatitis B levels varied across the planet revealed that Western Pacific Region (115 million people) and its African Region (60 million people) have the highest number of infected people.

The new report also showed that less than 10% of infected persons had access to quality health care, and an even smaller percent started receiving treatment after getting infected with the disease which increases the risk of cancer and even death.

Margaret Chan, the Director-General of WHO, in a report announcing the findings, said: “Viral hepatitis is now recognized as a major public health challenge that requires an urgent response.

“Vaccines and medicines to tackle hepatitis exist, and we are committed to helping ensure these tools reach all those who need them”.

Globally, 84 per cent of children born in 2015 received the three recommended doses of HBV vaccine, and this mass vaccinations have helped reduce the global epidemic.

According to Gottfried Hirnschall, Director of WHO’s Department of HIV and the Global Hepatitis Programme, “HBV infection requires lifelong treatment, and Hepatitis C can be cured within a relatively short time using the correct medicines, making the need for testing and treatment all the more important.

“We are still at an early stage of the viral hepatitis response, but the way forward looks promising.

“More countries are making hepatitis services available for people in need – a diagnostic test costs less than one dollar and the cure for HCV can be below 200 dollars.”

WHO Reports Record Breaking Progress Against Tropical Diseases

The World health organisation (who) has made a huge progress and has achieved “record-breaking” progress in controlling neglected tropical diseases, which blind, maim, disfigure and debilitate millions of people worldwide, especially in poorest countries.

The Director-General of WHO, Dr Margaret Chan, in a new report on Integrating Neglected Tropical Diseases into Global Health and Development, said an estimated one billion people were reached with treatment for at least one of these diseases in 2015 alone.

Chan explained that efforts were on by the UN health agency to tackle the diseases, known as Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs).

“We have observed record-breaking progress towards bringing ancient scourges like sleeping sickness and elephantiasis to their knees.

“Over the past 10 years, millions of people have been rescued from disability and poverty, thanks to one of the most effective global partnerships in modern public health,” Chan said.

The WHO’s new report shows how political support, improvements in living conditions and supply of medicines have led to the sustained expansion of disease control programmes in countries where these diseases are most prevalent.

“Another major milestone was the endorsement of an NTD roadmap in 2012, in which WHO partners’ committed additional support and resources to eliminating 10 of the most common NTDs.

“For sustaining this momentum, experts believe that wider progress towards realising the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development would be crucial.

“Meeting global targets for water and sanitation, such as those under the global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will be key”.

WHO estimates that 2.4 billion people still lack basic sanitation facilities such as toilets and latrines, while more than 660 million continue to drink water from “unimproved” sources, such as surface water.

According to Dr Dirk Engels, Director of WHO’s Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, “further gains will depend on wider progress towards the SDGs”.

“Once widely prevalent, diseases are now restricted to tropical and sub-tropical regions with unsafe water, inadequate hygiene and sanitation, and poor housing conditions.

“More than 70 per cent of countries and territories that report the presence of NTDs are low or lower-middle income economies.

“The class of these illnesses include diseases such as dengue, rabies, trachoma, Buruli ulcer, yaws, leprosy, human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease), schistosomiasis (larval worm infection) etc.

“Poor people living in remote, rural areas, urban slums, or conflict zones are most at risk,” Engels said.

 

Source: The Nation